Ontology of items and relationships within SAWS manuscripts

 

[N.B. In all lists below, the bullet points show the hierarchical relationship is-a-type-of (e.g. a CollectionInstance is a type of Material, or a ScribeSection is a type of Section).]

I. Items

       Family [a grouping of related Materials - this is a concept, an interpretation, rather than a physical thing]

       PhysicalObject (N.B. represented in ontology as ecrm:E18_Physical_Thing)

o   PhysicalManuscript [the physical object on which the Material we are working on exists]

o   ReconstructedManuscript [manuscript whose parts are now distributed as separate ManuscriptParts, so no longer exists as a whole, but can still be identified]

o   Locus [a location within an MS]

  ManuscriptPart [physical section of a MSS]

o   Lacuna [physical gap in the MS]

       LinguisticObject [From CIDOC: This class comprises identifiable expressions in natural language or languages. A LinguisticObject is any textual material, including the overall Material (Edition, OriginalMaterial, CollectionInstance, HypothesisedInstance, AbstractManuscriptText) and parts of Materials such as Section, Title, ContentItem, Marginalia or external Comment. So, any relations to or from a LinguisticObject can also be used for all its descendants, e.g. Material wasWrittenAt Place, AbstractManuscriptText wasWrittenAt Place, HypothesisedInstance wasWrittenAt Place, Edition wasWrittenAt Place, CollectionInstance wasWrittenAt Place, Section wasWrittenAt Place, etc. We may not necessarily wish to use all these statements but they are available in case we do.] NB LinguisticObject is represented in the ontology as ecrm:E33_Linguistic_Object

o    Material: [any of the texts we are working on in SAWS or that we are referring to]

  Edition [any edited Material, known or unknown, including texts such as the Bible and Kekaumenos]

  OriginalMaterial [one produced by Scribe transcription rather than being edited in modern times]

       CollectionInstance [the gnomologium or other compilation/collection on which we are working]

       HypothesisedInstance [a AbstractManuscriptText or CollectionInstance which we hypothesise may have existed, but which we do not have-presumed lost or destroyed]

       AbstractManuscriptText [the text that is written in a manuscript]

o   Section [a division of a LinguisticObject e.g. chapter, verse, for larger-scale reference than when using a ContentItem. These can be nested/numbered]

  ScribeSection [any division within our LinguisticObject indicated by the Scribe]

  EditorSection [any division within our LinguisticObject created by the Editor, e.g. to make the navigation of the text clearer or to mark a region of interest]

  Prologue

  Epilogue

o   Title [the title assigned to any LinguisticObject] (N.B. represented in ontology as ecrm:E35_Title)

  ScribeTitle [indicates a title assigned in the MS]

  EditorTitle [indicates title assigned outside the MS]

o   ContentItem [basic unit of interest within the Material: a division of a CollectionInstance/Section, for more exact reference than when using a Section – this identifies basic units of interest in the Material for SAWS:]

  Narrative [Narrative text that is not a saying itself, that either stands alone or is the text surrounding or immediately preceding or following the Statement (saying), e.g. 'Aristotle says...', 'The frogs asked for a king., Aristotle is a lover of knowledge]

  Statement [the actual saying, e.g. 'All men are mortal']

  Definition [defining a concept or term used in the Material]

  Other [unit of the Material within an ContentItem, as identified by the modern Editor, which isnt a Narrative, Statement, or Definition]

o   Marginalia [remark(s) physically written in the margin of the Material by a Scribe, not necessarily the original Scribe. N.B. If a comment has been physically written on a Material (usually in the margin), then this should be represented as an instance of a Marginalia. The Comment class is for comments on a Material that dont physically exist on that Material]

o   Comment [comment on a part of the Material, usually from the modern Editor. N.B. If a comment has been physically written on a Material (usually in the margin), then this should be represented as an instance of a Marginalia. The Comment class is for comments on a Material that dont physically exist on that Material]

       DecorativeItem [decorative element (picture, ornamentation, etc) within the Material, either meaning-bearing or non meaning-bearing]

       Actor [living being (not necessarily a Person, not necessarily still alive) who is identified/named/referred to within a LinguisticObject (N.B. in ontology as ecrm:E39_Actor)

o   Person: [any human being, named or otherwise] (N.B. in ontology as efrbroo:F10_Person)

o   AttributedAuthor [Person to whom original authorship of a LinguisticObject is attributed, as the source of that LinguisticObject]

o   Transmitter [Person who is described in the text content as having transmitted a ContentItem or other LinguisticObjects, for example [Transmitter] said that [AttributedAuthor] said (ContentItem)

o   Scribe [producer / author of a LinguisticObject (excluding Edition), in the medieval age. The Scribe can be named or unnamed]

o   Editor [modern scholar editing material to produce an Edition, in the age of printing and beyond]

       Place [A geographic entity of interest] (N.B. in ontology as efrbroo:F9_Place)

       Institution [can own materials, be at places, include persons as members]

       Language [language in which a Material is written - this is put in the TEI header. NB in the TEI header we should use standards for languages, e.g. at http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/ , so use http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/iso639-2/grc rather than Greek] (N.B. in ontology as ecrm:E56_Language)

      Name [to state a Persons name or other name of interest e.g. of a church] (N.B. in ontology as efrbroo:F12_Name)Contact Point [an identifier representing how to contact a Person, e.g. website (N.B. in ontology as ecrm:E51_Contact_Point)


      II. Relations

IIa. Relations that can be added to marked-up texts

 

In a TEI document, all the relationships listed below should be written using <relation> e.g.

  <relation resp="MGL" ref="saws:isCloseTranslationOf" active="#div1.i001"               passive="sawsCTS:greekLit:tlg3017.Syno298.sawsGrc01:divedition.divsection1.o2.a01"/>

 

       {Anything} isUnrelatedTo {Anything} [To explicitly say two things are not at all related but are completely independent of each other]

       {Anything} isDifferentTo {Anything} [To explicitly say that two things are different]

 

       {Anything} isRelatedTo {Anything} [Two things are related in some way. This relation may be used where the details of the link are to be refined at a later date, or where some relation is seen but the annotater cannot be more specific than to indicate that this relationship exists.]

 

       OriginalMaterial isMemberOf Family [An OriginalMaterial is member of a Family of related OriginalMaterials]

       Family hasMember OriginalMaterial [A Family contains the specified original material (i.e. one produced by Scribe transcription rather than being edited in modern times)]

 

       OriginalMaterial isInSameFamilyAs OriginalMaterial [Two OriginalMaterials are related by being part of the same Family of related OriginalMaterials]

       OriginalMaterial isSiblingOf OriginalMaterial  [The two OriginalMaterials are produced using the same source(s) OriginalMaterial(s) (as indirect or direct source)]

o   OriginalMaterial isTwinOf OriginalMaterial [from same direct source]

       OriginalMaterial isAncestorOf / hasAncestor OriginalMaterial [An ancestor OriginalMaterial is a source material (direct or indirect) for the production of part or all of the descendant OriginalMaterial]

o   OriginalMaterial isParentOf / hasParent OriginalMaterial [The parent OriginalMaterial is a known direct source for the production of part or all of the child OriginalMaterial]

       OriginalMaterial isDescendantOf / hasDescendant OriginalMaterial [An ancestor OriginalMaterial is a source material (direct or indirect) for the production of part or all of the descendant OriginalMaterial]

o   OriginalMaterial isChildOf / hasChild OriginalMaterial [The parent OriginalMaterial is a direct source for the production of part or all of the child OriginalMaterial]

 

       OriginalMaterial ownedBy Person [The Material of interest has been owned (in the past or currently) by this particular Person. This would normally be based on a specific statement/mark of ownership.]

       Person hasOwned OriginalMaterial [A Person has owned (either currently or in the past) the Material of Interest. This would normally be based on a specific statement/mark of ownership.]

 

       OriginalMaterial usedBy Person [The Original Material of interest has been used by this particular Person in their work. Interaction is other than ownership.]

       Person hasUsed OriginalMaterial [A Person has used (either currently or in the past) the OriginalMaterial in their work. Interaction is other than ownership.]

 

       Institution isLocatedAt Place [A physical thing is (or was) located at a particular location (Place or Locus) NB Use this relation if you are talking about a physically-existing object being located at a physical place. Use physicallyLocatedAt if you are talking about an abstract linguistic object being found at a particular locus.]

       Place isLocationOf Institution [A particular Place or Locus is (or was) the location of a physical thing. NB Use this relation if you are talking about the physical location of a physically-existing object. Use physicalLocationOf if you are talking about the physical location for an abstract linguistic object.]

 

       Institution hasMember Person

       Person isMemberOf Institution

 

       Institution ownerOf Material

       Material hasOwned Institution

 

       LinguisticObject isWrittenAt Place [A LinguisticObject is written (or transcribed) at a specified Place]

       Place isLocationForWritingOf LinguisticObject [A Place is the location witnessing the writing (or transcription) of a LinguisticObject]

       LinguisticObject isWrittenAt Institution

       Institution isLocationForWritingOf LinguisticObject

 

       LinguisticObject isWrittenBy Person [A LinguisticObject is written (or transcribed) by a specified Person:

o   {Any LinguisticObject except Edition} isCopiedBy Scribe

o   {Any LinguisticObject except Edition} isAttributedToAuthor AttributedAuthor

o   {Any LinguisticObject except Edition} isTransmittedBy Transmitter

o   Edition  isEditedBy  Editor [An Edition is edited by an Editor (someone from the SAWS team or another modern-day scholar)]

       Person hasWritten LinguisticObject [A Person has written (or has transcribed) a LinguisticObject]

o   Scribe isCopierOf {Any LinguisticObject except Edition}

o   AttributedAuthor isAttributedAuthorOf {Any LinguisticObject except Edition}

o   Transmitter isTransmitterOf {Any LinguisticObject except Edition}

o   Editor isEditorOf Edition [An Editor (A modern-day scholar, e.g. someone from the SAWS team, has edited an Edition]

 

       Comment commentMadeBy Editor [A comment has been made by a modern-day scholar/editor. NB to represent marginalia physically written in the margins of the manuscript, use: Marginalia marginaliaAddedBy Scribe.]

       Editor hasMadeComment Comment [A modern-day scholar/editor has made a comment. NB to represent scribes physically writing marginalia on the manuscript, use: Scribe hasAddedMarginalia.]

       Marginalia marginaliaAddedBy Scribe [Marginalia have been physically added onto the manuscript by a Scribe. NB to represent where a comment has been made by a modern-day scholar/editor, not written onto the manuscript, use: Comment commentMadeBy Editor]

       Scribe hasAddedMarginalia Marginalia [A Scribe has physically added Marginalia onto a manuscript. NB to represent where a modern-day scholar/editor makes a comment, not written onto the manuscript, use: Editor hasMadeComment Comment]

       DecorativeItem decorationAddedBy Person [A DecorativeItem has been physically added onto the manuscript by a Person. NB to represent marginalia notes (text) physically written in the margins of the manuscript, use: Marginalia marginaliaAddedBy Scribe]

       Person hasAddedDecoration DecorativeItem [A Person has physically added a DecorativeItem onto the manuscript. NB to represent where scribes have written marginalia notes (text) physically onto the manuscript, use: Scribe hasAddedMarginalia Marginalia]

 

       Locus isLocatedAt PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript/ManuscriptPart

       PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript/ManuscriptPart isLocationOf Locus [A physical thing is (or was) located at a particular location (Place or Locus). NB Use this relation if you are talking about a physically-existing object being located at a physical place. Use physicallyLocatedAt if you are talking about an abstract linguistic object being found at a particular locus.]

       {Anything Physical} isLocatedAt Locus

       Locus isLocationOf {Anything Physical}

 

       PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript/ManuscriptPart isFromSamePlaceAs PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript/ManuscriptPart [The two manuscripts (or parts of the manuscripts) have been copied/produced in the same Place]

       PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript/ManuscriptPart isBySameScribeAs  PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscriptPart [The two manuscripts (or parts of the manuscripts) have been copied/produced by the same Person]

 

       ManuscriptPart formsPartOf PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript (P46B)

       PhysicalManuscript/ReconstructedManuscript hasPart ManuscriptPart (P46F)

o   [NB manuscripts can be composed of many ManuscriptParts – this relationship would be stated once for each part. This relationship can be used both for existing parts of manuscripts or ManuscriptParts which used to be parts of a manuscript]

 

       PhysicalObject isOlderThan PhysicalObject [A PhysicalObject (manuscript, is older than (i.e. was produced earlier in time than) another specified PhysicalObject]

       PhysicalObject isYoungerThan PhysicalObject [A PhysicalObject is younger than (i.e. was produced later in time than) another specified PhysicalObject]

 

       LinguisticObject isBasedOn LinguisticObject [An Linguistic Object is based upon one or more textual materials (manuscripts, collections etc). One <relation> per each textual material)]

       LinguisticObject isSourceFor Linguistic Object [A textual material (manuscripts, collections etc) is one of the source documents on which an LinguisticObject is based. One <relation> per each textual material)]

 

       CollectionInstance / Section isSequentiallySameAs  CollectionInstance / Section [A CollectionInstance or Section has the same sequential structure as another CollectionInstance or Section. N.B. CollectionInstances contain sequences of ordered Sections. Sections contain sequences of ordered ContentItems

       CollectionInstance / Section isSequentiallySimilarTo CollectionInstance / Section [A CollectionInstance or Section has a slightly different but related sequential structure to another CollectionInstance or Section. N.B. CollectionInstances contain sequences of ordered Sections. Sections contain sequences of ordered ContentItems]

       Section isSubSequenceOf Section [A Section is formed of a sequence of ContentItems that is a subsequence of the sequence of ContentItems in another Section]

 

       ScribeSection  isIdentifiedBy  Scribe

       EditorSection isIdentifiedBy  Editor

 

       LinguisticObject  isNotPresent in LinguisticObject [To specify that a piece of text is missing from a LinguisticObject, for example if this text appears in a corresponding part of a manuscript from the same Family)

 

       LinguisticObject refersTo {Anything} [This property allows you to say that the text of a LinguisticObject makes a reference to (or mentions) some other text or object, either within the text (e.g. as allusion) or external to the text (for external things, please give a URI for that object) This can include references to summaries (eg ToC]

       {Anything} isReferencedBy LinguisticObject [This property allows you to say that an object or some text (internal to that document or from an external source) is referred to in the text of a LinguisticObject, e.g. by being described or being alluded to]

 

       Comment isCommentOn {Anything} [To indicate that an editorial Comment is being made about something ]

       Marginalia areMarginaliaOn OriginalMaterial [To indicate that Marginalia have been written on the manuscript,e .g. in the margins]

       {Anything} hasComment Comment

       OriginalMaterial hasMarginalia Marginalia

       LinguisticObject physicallyLocatedAt Locus [This lets you describe the physical location of the LinguisticObject, e.g. a particular piece of text, or Marginalia, by recording the Locus that the notes are physically written on in a Material. You can describe the Locus (e.g. folio number, or position on the page) in free text, in as much detail as required, if there is no formal way to describe the location of the text/marginalia]

       Locus physicalLocationOf LinguisticObject [This lets you describe the physical location of the LinguisticObject, e.g. a particular piece of text, or Marginalia, by recording the Locus that the notes are physically written on in a Material. You can describe the Locus (e.g. folio number, or position on the page) in free text, in as much detail as required, if there is no formal way to describe the location of the text/marginalia]

Comparing between text of the same or different languages. These relations can be used to describe links between texts, and/or between parts of texts (e.g. ContentItems)

       {Anything} isUnrelatedTo {Anything} [To explicitly say two things are not at all related but are completely independent of each other]

       {Anything} isDifferentTo {Anything} [To explicitly say that two things are different]

       {Anything} isRelatedTo {Anything} [Two things are related in some way. This relation may be used where the details of the link are to be refined at a later date, or where some relation is seen but the annotater cannot be more specific than to indicate that this relationship exists. Can be used as a placeholder or temporary annotation in a preliminary stage of annotation]

 

       LinguisticObject isVerbatimOf LinguisticObject [A LinguisticObject is a verbatim, word-for-word copy of another LinguisticObject. This need not imply that one is a direct copy of the other, nor which is the earlier]

       LinguisticObject isVariantOf LinguisticObject [A LinguisticObject is a linguistically modified copy of a second LinguisticObject, in the same language/genre, and of the same length, with only small variation in use or order of words, e.g. one or two words substituted for another, or a connective inserted. This may or may not have different conceptual function. This need not imply that one is a direct copy of the other, nor which is the earlier]

       LinguisticObject isVersionOf LinguisticObject [A LinguisticObject is a version in the same language of another LinguisticObject. This relates to the other object, but matches less closely than isVariantOf. This need not imply that one is a direct copy of the other, nor which is the earlier.]

o   LinguisticObject isShorterVersionOf LinguisticObject [A LinguisticObject is related to another LinguisticObject in that it conveys the same ideas (FRBRoo: Work), but is expressed in a more concise version (FRBRoo: a different and shorter Expression)]

o   LinguisticObject isLongerVersionOf LinguisticObject [A LinguisticObject is related to another LinguisticObject in that it conveys the same ideas (FRBRoo: Work), but is expressed in an expanded or enhanced version of the text (FRBRoo: a different and longer Expression). This need not imply that one is a direct copy of the other, nor which is the earlier]

        LinguisticObject isCloseRenderingOf LinguisticObject [This property specifies the source and target LinguisticObject involved (respectively) when rendering one LinguisticObject instance to express it in a related but different way (not necessarily in a different Language), resulting in a new LinguisticObject e.g. poetry into prose, or from one dialect to another, or a paraphrase being made.  This property indicates that the new LinguisticObject is a close rendering of the original LinguisticObject. This need not imply that one is a direct copy of the other, nor which is the earlier]

        LinguisticObject isLooseRenderingOf LinguisticObject [This property specifies the source and target LinguisticObject involved (respectively) when rendering one LinguisticObject instance to express it in a related but different way (not necessarily in a different Language), resulting in a new LinguisticObject e.g. poetry into prose, or from one dialect to another, or a paraphrase being made. This property indicates that the new LinguisticObject is a loose rendering of the original LinguisticObject. This need not imply that one is a direct copy of the other, nor which is the earlier]

       LinguisticObject  IsVersionInAnotherLanguageOf LinguisticObject A LinguisticObject is a version of another LinguisticObject in another language. This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier]

o   LinguisticObject isVerbatimTranslationOf LinguisticObject [word-for-word translation (ad pedem). This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier]

o   LinguisticObject isShorterTranslationOf LinguisticObject [A Linguistic Object is a condensed version of another Linguistic Object, in a different language. This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier]

o   LinguisticObject isLongerTranslationOf LinguisticObject [A Linguistic Object is a enhanced or expanded version of another Linguistic Object, in a different language. This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier]

o   LinguisticObject isCloseTranslationOf LinguisticObject  [This property indicates that the translated text is a close interpretation of the original text. This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier]

o   LinguisticObject isLooseTranslationOf LinguisticObject  [This property indicates that the translated text is a loose interpretation of the original text. This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier].

o   LinguisticObject isTransliterationOf LinguisticObject [A LinguisticObject is a transliteration of another LinguisticObject, i.e. same words but using a different set of characters, e.g. kai isTransliterationOf και . This need not imply that one is a direct translation of the other, nor which is the earlier]

o   LinguisticObject isDirectTranslationOf LinguisticObject [the translator worked directly from an MS or text which we have identified. This does imply that the first Linguistic Object is a direct translation of the second Linguistic Object, meaning that the second Linguistic Object existed first. This relationship can be used in conjunction with other relationships which specify more details about the translation, e.g. isLooseTranslationOf, isLongerTranslationOf]

 

LinguisticObject isDirectCopyOf LinguisticObject  [To say explicitly that one Linguistic Object is a direct copy of another Linguistic Object. This relationship can be used in conjunction with other relationships which specify more details about the copying, e.g. isLooseRenderingOf, isVersionOf]

IIb. Relations already in the TEI schema – do not need adding to texts (but you can add these if you want to)

 

       LinguisticObject fallsWithin LinguisticObject

       LinguisticObject contains LinguisticObject